2016 - 2019
Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Man
www.nafees.inf
o
GettingStarted
With
AI
2016 - 2019
Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Man
www.nafees.inf
o
WhatisAI
TypicalAIProblems
CurrentState
Outline
2016 - 2019
Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Man
www.nafees.inf
o
Whatisintelligence?
–Isitthatwhichcharacterizehumans?Oristhereanabsolutestandardofjudgment?
–Accordinglytherearetwopossibilities:
–Asystemwithintelligenceisexpectedtobehaveasintelligentlyasahuman
–Asystemwithintelligenceisexpectedtobehaveinthebestpossiblemanner
–Secondlywhattypeofbehaviorarewetalkingabout?
–Arewelookingatthethoughtprocessorreasoningabilityofthesystem?
–Orareweonlyinterestedinthefinalmanifestationsofthesystemintermsof
itsactions?
ArtificialIntelligenceisconcernedwiththedesignofintelligenceinanartificialdevice.
ThetermwascoinedbyMcCarthyin1956.
Therearetwoideasinthedefinition.
1.Intelligence
2.artificialdevice
What is AI?
What is AI?
2016 - 2019
Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Man
www.nafees.inf
o
ViewsofAIfallintofourcategories:
Thinkinghumanly(TuringTest)
Thinkingrationally(Lawsofthoughts/Logic)
Actinghumanly(CognitiveScience)
Actingrationally(RationalAgents)
What is AI? (Cont’d)
2016 - 2019
Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Man
www.nafees.inf
o
Given this scenario different interpretations have
been used by different researchers as defining the
scopeandviewofArtificialIntelligence.
1. One view is that artificial intelligence is about
designingsystemsthatareasintelligentashumans.
This view involves trying to understand human
thoughtandanefforttobuildmachinesthatemulate
thehumanthoughtprocess.Thisviewisthecognitive
scienceapproachtoAI.
What is AI? (Cont’d)
2016 - 2019
Artificial Intelligence
Dr. Man
www.nafees.inf
o
2. The second approach is best embodied by the
conceptoftheTuringTest.Turingheldthatinfuture
computers can be programmed to acquire abilities
rivaling human intelligence. As part of his argument
Turingputforwardtheideaofan'imitationgame',in
which a human being and a computer would be
interrogatedunderconditionswheretheinterrogator
wouldnotknowwhichwaswhich,thecommunication
beingentirelybytextualmessages.Turingarguedthat
if the interrogator could not distinguish them by
questioning,thenitwouldbeunreasonablenottocall
the computer intelligent. Turing's 'imitation game' is
nowusuallycalled'theTuringtest'forintelligence.
Considerthefollowingsetting.Therearetworooms,A
and B. One of the rooms contains a computer. The
other contains a human. The interrogator is outside
anddoes not know whichone is a computer. He can
askquestionsthroughateletypeandreceivesanswers
frombothAandB.Theinterrogatorneedstoidentify
whether A or B are humans. To pass the Turing test,
themachinehastofooltheinterrogatorintobelieving
thatitishuman.
FormoredetailsontheTuringtest
visit the site
http
://cogsci.ucsd.edu/~asaygin/tt/ttest.
html
What is AI? (Cont’d)